Israel shot down what it identified only as "a target" over the occupied Golan Heights on Thursday, hours after Syria accused it of hitting a military position near Damascus airport.
"The Patriot Aerial Defense System intercepted a target above the Golan Heights," the official Israeli army Twitter account said, without elaborating.
A military spokeswoman refused to comment on Israeli media reports that the object was a drone.
Syria's state news agency SANA said earlier that several Israeli missiles hit near Damascus airport at dawn.
Israel has not confirmed or denied the reported Damascus attack.
But Intelligence Minister Yisrael Katz said it was consistent with Israel's policy to prevent arms transfers through to Hizbullah, while stopping short of confirming his country was behind the incident.
"We are acting to prevent the transfer of sophisticated weapons from Syria to Hizbullah in Lebanon by Iran," Katz told army radio.
"When we receive serious information about the intention to transfer weapons to Hizbullah, we will act. This incident is totally consistent with this policy."